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Beam C in my drawings has the above specifications drawn. What does this mean? What is 20# WF?
I assume 8" x 5 1/4" x 20' is simple dimension.
Is there different terminology in steel? Such as the 20# WF?
I also noticed some beams are I beams and others are [ beams.
Correct about the notations. That's not a really heavy beam, and is normally called out something like W8 X 20, w/o the width of the flange (5.25"). Actually, any steel in a house is serious. A beam line may have multiple flange widths depending on the spans. A common height is usually desired to hide the structure, so the per foot weight (and width of flange) will increase on a longer span at the same height. In commercial work, it is easier to standardize spans, so when steel is used in a house it is always a unique and interesting situation whether 1907, 1951, or 2007.RJH wrote:http://bencosteel.thomasnet.com/category/beams
I think you are right. Seem like a serious piece of steel for such a small house.
I find this amusing because I work part time doing structural analysis for the local engineer. We're working on a famous rock star's house and every ridge, hip/valley, floor beam, etc is steel! This particular beam is used on a porch 16' deep spanning 21' between 16" square, carved, DF posts. That's not one porch, that's one of about 18 modules.
Quite a structure for a residence, but then the main room spans 44' and is 60' long. That uses (2) 14" deep flitch beams with 4 PSL's each 20' o.c., to keep a narrow profile. Ridiculous amount of space.
Isn't using any type of steel expensive in residential contruction? On my website, under "Driving Tour" I posted a Tony Puttnam house being built. I toured the house with the owner and it had these massive steel I beams in the basment. The owner looked at me and saud, "yup, and they wern't cheap either!"
Also, does the weight (like 20W) mean the beam weighs 20lbs per foot? If so, that one beam weights a heafty 400lbs.
In my opinion the biggest technical problem with wood is not that it fails outright. The biggest problem is that, if overloaded , it just sags and/or crushes. If you walk through an historic house, including works by FLW, you can occasionally feel or see these deflections. On Davenport, which had a young Frank Lloyd Wright as the architect and the rookie carpentry crew, we spent a lot of time and money on structural repairs while we had the house opened up. We definitely plumbed the outer limits of what was possible and what was not. For me that was one of the fun things about the project. I was able to hire superb, but expensive, structural engineers and also experiment in addressing very tough structural issues that one of our clients would not typically pay for. We developed a lot of valuable knowledge.
Richard has discovered that there is at least one tension member in the Haynes house, buried in the brick, at the opposite end of a WF beam from the cantilever at the rear (bedroom) corner of the house, a 3/4" rod welded to the web of the beam (through a hole in the lower flange) and bent in a soft arc at the bottom, welded to a 6"x6" plate of 3/8" steel which is (presumably) attached to or buried beneath the slab. This is shown at 3"=1'0" on the drawings.
I'm also intrigued by the pattern of the roof hips and valleys. I can't seem to resolve the isolated triangle at center. What's drawn there, and above to the right, seems an impossibility. Or are those trusses ? Anyone ?
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My former home in Roanoke VA, built in 1922 had steel colums in the basement supporting a steel beam which in turn supported the joists for the first floor.
My former home in Birmingham AL, circa 1991 had an almost identical arrangement in the basement/garage.
My current home in Louisville, circa 1966 also has the same thing, except in this case the beam runs the entire length of the house, about 50 feet.
It was and remains the cheap, easy way to construct an open basement/garage area, or any other open area without load-bearing walls. Now if they had only done that on the other floors of my current house, I wouldn't have to have engineers involved in removing walls.
HAYNES - SHEET #4 [img]
A- Is cut off in the photo. It is on bottom of page. Rests on top of the brick Tool House for carport roof support. Secured on both corners by anchor rods.
B- Over the walkway. Beam travels through brick and extends into the mudroom. Supports the inside brick wall of the mudroom. No anchor rods.
C- Over the MBA. One anchor rod at corner.
D- Unknown? Could be over kitchen door and mudroom door entry.
E- Over the Dining Table
F- This beam intersects w/Beam E in a T shape.
G- Carport beam (shown). One anchor rod on right corner.
South - Top of page
North - Bottom of page
East - BR Wing
West - Great Room
Beams may be mis-identified, since the lettering as a little difficult to read.
Fascinating stuff. First off, Beam "B" is interesting. It is a 50/50 cantilever-very strange since most cantilevers basically demand a 2/3 support span for every 1/3 cantilevered, and even then the connection is the most important factor. I suspect this beam is actually buried in the wall as a counter balancing force on it. Also, the point load and uplift at the intersection of the beam and that hip rafter is considerable. It is actually a trapezoidal shaped load consisting of half the loading of any associated span. It could only be worse placed at the extreme corner!
The 8" c-channel beam (over dining area?) is not unusual, it has a fairly evenly distributed load.
It's interesting that the hold down detail on Beam "C" isn't also used on Beam "B". If I read correctly, Wright/Wes knew they could not rely on the brick structure to resist the anticipated loads on that 20' cantilever. It's balanced at the pier, but subject to tremendous loads and uplift. This was addressed by the 3/4" rod welded to the beam, which transmits the forces direct to the foundation via the plate welded at the bottom and secured to the footing as noted. When the cantilever is stressed the rod/foundation connection resists and absorbs the forces; correctly engineered and definitely needed!
IMO, that beam appears "inadequate" in depth. I'll run the calculation and see what comes up, but can't really make out the dimensions (that dang unit system!). JimM, Please run the calculation. I checked my drawing and 3' cantilevers, 8' rests on brick wall and 9' cantilvers. Total 20'. Again, BEAM "C" 20# WF 8"x 5 1/4" x 20' LONG. It is also and I beam (not a [ beam) RJH
These are simple framing designs, except for the eccentric/oddly located supports for the hip/valley slopes, they're shear genius and make a huge difference. That's how Frank prevented essentially rectangular footprints from appearing too tract house-like, with equal span gabled ridges. These must have been a nightmare to unenlightened framers of the time.
The other thing I find fascinating is the morphing of the roof framing to actual on site truss-work where needed for the important floating quality of the ceiling. The use of trusses is common today-still not as Wright applied them. The truss shown in Detail "D-D" acts is a beam, using the mullion as a support; no steel needed. It's interesting (and very "Frank") to use the most dramatic cantilever in the bedroom wing, not the living room!
The command of simple engineering Wright used from early on and applied so successfully in these later small homes is really unbelievable when you think about it.
It looks like the hip of the larger living room connects to the hip coming from the lower bedroom wing ridge. It's possible there are rafters framed into that triangular area parallel to and at the same slope as the others over the bedrooms.SDR wrote:I'm also intrigued by the pattern of the roof hips and valleys. I can't seem to resolve the isolated triangle at center. What's drawn there, and above to the right, seems an impossibility. Or are those trusses ? Anyone ?SDR
What is most fascinating, though, is there appears to be a missing hip from the top of that triangle to the intersection of the fascia boards at the living room. The shorter fascia section would have to be sloped in line with rafters from the living room ridge to the hip, if it is drawn accurately. That would also eliminate the need for the hip shown! I imagine that is not the case, and rafters are probably running conventionally at 45 degrees each direction from the hip. Therefore, there should be a hip from the triangle to the 90 degree fascia intersection. If so, Frank missed this or it just may never have been resolved prior to construction. That was probably not explained very well, but does anyone agree?